Site management, the basic elements are only three: people, things, places;There are only "two streams" : logistics and information flow;As the site manager, no matter it is the production manager, production supervisor, workshop director, foreman, team leader, or improvement engineer, IE engineer, quality control engineer, it is necessary to conduct detailed analysis and research on these three elements and two flows, find out the problems, analyze the reasons, and find out the answers to solve the problems.
This paper provides field managers with an idea and tool to analyze and create field management, so as to reduce the capital investment, and to achieve efficiency and benefit from scientific management first.
1. Check the process flow
Diagrams that describe the steps and delivery routes of a process are called flowcharts.It includes two major categories of workflow and process flow, but the essence is the same, it can be used to represent the complex process in a visual diagram.
Process or workflow technology is a unit or the general line of work, it's image reflects the process or work programs, departments, and to determine the connection process, or check after processing procedure, to find problem of an enterprise or a department, should from the beginning of the process, "hildesheim analysis existing the whole process of production, work:
What are the unreasonable processes?
Where is the reverse flow?
Where is the pause?
Which process routes and links can be eliminated, combined and simplified?
Analyze and determine if each link of the flowchart is in a controlled state.
Does the inspection function as a gatekeeper?
Are horizontal connections in place?Is it clear?
Do you need to build or add new pathways?
From the flow chart each link and the transmission route, analyzes the existing departments work functions in place?
Are existing institutions to be restructured or restructured?
2. Upgrade the plane plan
Some factories at the beginning of the factory, there is no elaborate design have been carried out to site layout and equipment layout, or due to the continuous development of production, equipment continuously acquire, disrupted the layout, or due to the change of product structure, the plant or equipment layout is unreasonable, so as to make the product and the workpiece in production when the transportation route is too long, and every time it is in manufacturing waste of hidden trouble, must be determined to change.
In the process flow chart is not able to see the plane route, flow chart on an arrow may actually walk dozens of meters, so further in the plane layout to find benefits.
Through the analysis of the operation mode and equipment configuration, according to the flow direction of the production process, whether there is a repeat route and reverse flow situation, find out the unreasonable parts, reasonable adjustment and design of a new layout, to shorten the process route and operator travel distance, reduce unnecessary waste of resources.Most of the time, we have to be surprised, a small change, the result is that the movement of a device will bring tens of meters or even hundreds of meters to save, or even save more space.
3. Do the math on the assembly line
Production lines and assembly lines should be carried out in accordance with the same rhythm, so that production can be balanced.Some enterprise production often appears "front dry, back see, front in advance, back in overtime" situation.Causes one is the movement way is not reasonable, another is the beat is not balanced.
A cask made of many boards of different lengths, the capacity of which is determined not by the longest board, but by the shortest board.Similarly, in the assembly line, the person who works the slowest is the one who decides the final efficiency of the assembly line.Balance efficiency of production line or assembly line = the sum of net working time of each procedure/the longest working time of each procedure × the number of personnel.
The balance rate of many production lines is often less than 50%. If the long working procedure is simplified, accelerated, replaced or split, the short working procedure is cut and added to balance the assembly line.The production efficiency of the whole production line will be greatly improved, and the slowness and accumulation caused by individual processes will be eliminated.
4. Reduce the action elements
Any operation is based on manual action as the basic unit, assembly process, processing process and other manual labor as the main process, action is a very important factor to produce benefits.
Conduct motion analysis, the main purpose is to eliminate redundant movements, invalid movements or slow movements, such as bending operations, squatting operations, work sites not free, no suitable tools, people and things in the state of search, with the most labor-saving methods to achieve the maximum work efficiency.
This research costs almost nothing and can greatly improve productivity.For example, in real life, why do some people make dumplings much faster than others?Why is some people transplanting rice faster than average people?That's because they've got the knack of doing things in the most economical way possible.
5. Move space and time around
According to statistics, 25% to 40% of the processing fee is handling fee;70% to 80% of the working time is for handling and stopping.Another 85% of the disasters in factories occur in the process of transportation.So compression is very important for handling.Improve handling to optimize handling, handling quantity, handling space, handling time to improve.
First, reduce the number and frequency of handling;
Second, in the handling space to shorten the distance, reduce the handling route and frequency;
Third, in the handling time to shorten the time, reduce the number of times;In terms of methods, attention should be paid to management and coordination, and non-power should be adopted as far as possible, such as using gravity to slide on the slope or carry on the conveyor belt.
The principle of reasonable handling is to ensure that the material is carried almost no loss;Handling methods to scientific, civilized, put an end to brutal and rough;Safe handling environment, suitable, put an end to risk;Reduce the occurrence of temporary placement of the phenomenon, as far as possible to achieve a place;Reasonable planning of plant layout can effectively shorten the distance of handling.When the plant planning has been finalized, the transportation distance can also be effectively reduced by rationalizing the planning process.
6. Man-machine efficiency
People and equipment are a pair of contradictions, if not handled well, it will happen either people and machines or machines and other people.Constitutes the relationship of the man-machine engineering and equipment, to analysis based on the analysis of the operators and the performance of the machine at the same time, with or without slowdown, the waiting, the invalid time, by adjusting the work order to improve the man-machine cooperation, seek a reasonable method, make the person's operation and machine operation coordination, to reduce waiting time to maximize, give full play to the people and the efficiency of the machine.Just like squeezing water out of each other's waiting time, this is to the man-machine joint operation to benefit.
7. Shrink your critical path
Almost any product is composed of a number of parts, usually divided into a few lines or several processes production, and to the later stage to assemble the parts bit by bit, in the process of forming parts, parts, inevitably will occur in the case of the different size of the workload of each process.
This will bring mutual constraints in the later production. For the process with small workload, there will be a lot of free time, while for the process with large workload, there will be no rest time. In other words, the time difference is zero, which becomes the bottleneck in production.Process is called critical path with zero time difference, it restricts the workshop production capacity and delivery time, after we find out the key route, to withdraw from the non-critical path human, financial, and strengthen the critical path, or adopt parallel operation, crossover operation, and so on form, shortening the critical path, constantly modification and optimization of cost savings plan, to shorten the schedule.
The first basic skill of the production supervisor is to calculate and find out the key route according to the plan and production capacity.Second, the key routes and other routes are constantly compressed to achieve the comprehensive optimization of time and cost.Here are two ways to do it:
The first method: time optimization.Is in manpower, equipment, capital and other guaranteed conditions, seek the shortest working cycle.It buys time to invest quickly.Using time difference, some manpower and material resources from non-critical routes are transferred to concentrate on key routes or decompose operations, increase the degree of parallel crossing between operations, increase the input of manpower and equipment, and adopt new technologies and technologies to shorten the duration of key routes.
Second approach: time-cost optimization.The expenses of a project can be divided into direct expenses and indirect expenses.Direct costs refer to the costs directly related to each operation, such as cloth or auxiliary materials, while indirect costs refer to the management costs that are not directly related to each activity, but vary with time. The shorter the project cycle, the smaller the indirect costs are.Time - cost optimization seeks to minimize the sum of direct and indirect costs.
8. The environment changes
Analysis of production, working environment whether meet the requirements of production, work, and people's physiological needs, analysis of the lack of what items and vehicle, in different categories of problems, puts forward improvement Suggestions respectively, to carry out "sorting, reorganization, cleaning, cleaning, quality, safety," six activities, do always keep A status, improve B state, remove C status at any time, keep employees exuberant spirit and good skills, the required items with desirable, do not need to be cleared at any time, the smooth, neat, and beautify the environment, safety, civilization, make the space and environment in time and space to achieve the overall optimization.
9. Take a visual management look
Up to 80 per cent of the human brain's information comes from vision.So the visual approach to communication and command is more straightforward.Use visual visual perception information to organize field production, and use charts, pictures, photos, text annotations, signs and symbols as visual management tools.It can easily achieve the functions of explanation, cognition, warning, judgment and action.So visual management can also be called "visible management" and "visual management".
10. Get to the root of the problem
Looking for the gap every day, in order to do better the next day -- this is a very important point in haier model innovation, constantly looking for problems, analyzing problems, never stop to improve the site, which is the common character of quality improvement, 8D work method, CIP and other activities.It is this that drives the management process and keeps the enterprise in an upward virtuous circle.
Improve the ten rules of the site, truly, truly, if you use it, you will find that the weapon with divine power is special, you'll be pleasantly surprised to see: the process is smooth, reasonable layout, assembly line slowdown disappeared, beats more evenly, workers operation with high efficiency, convenient handling, the balance of production, closely the man-machine combination, simple management, a faster, better and more shorter and more suitable lean production situation has quietly come!