When people think of Germany, they naturally think of Volkswagen, mercedes-benz, BMW, audi, porsche, opel and other famous German cars, as well as German mechanical equipment.Germany's remarkable achievements in manufacturing industry are attributed to the German government's massive investment in vocational education and the whole society's respect for skilled workers.German entrepreneurs believe that first-class products need first-class technicians to manufacture, and then advanced scientific research results, no skilled workers of the process of operation, it is difficult to become a competitive product.
Writing in the front
Former German President herzog once said, "what Germany needs to remain economically competitive is not more PHDS, but more technicians."By technicians, I mean the "industrial technicians" who support "made in Germany".
German skilled workers earn more than the national average, and technical school graduates almost universally earn more than college graduates.The average salary of white-collar graduates is about 30,000 euros, while the average salary of technicians is about 35,000 euros. The salary of technicians in many industries is much higher than that of ordinary civil servants and even higher than that of university professors.
Due to the high wages of skilled workers in Germany and the great demand for skilled workers in the manufacturing industry, 65% of junior high school graduates give up the path of going to high school and then university and go directly to vocational schools.Vocational education in Germany is fully funded by the government, with a student receiving 4,100 euros a year.Students are "ordered" to become prospective employees of the enterprise during their study in the vocational school, and the enterprise shall pay 600~800 euros per month to the "ordered" technical students.
The reason why German manufacturing is so strong is that the country has accumulated rich resources of "craftsmen", including engineers, senior technicians and ordinary technicians.German craftsman spirit is rigorous, standard, meticulous, the requirement screws need to twist five times, they will never twist four and a half times.No matter it is an engineer or an ordinary mechanic, everyone has his unique skills. Some of them are inherited from their ancestors, but most of them come from vocational schools, technical schools and even applied technical universities all over Germany. In addition, training provided by German trade associations and on-site training in enterprises are also very common.
The question is, why do so many germans choose to become skilled workers rather than the universal pursuit of a college degree?
1. Why are germans willing to be mechanics?
First, in Germany, there is no shame in being a mechanic. They also enjoy the reputation and respect of other "higher professions" in the society
From the German point of view, what everyone does is just a different division of labor. Whether it is a politician, an educator, an entrepreneur, an engineer or a mechanic, they are only different professions, without any superiority or inferiority.The German word "occupation" means duty, or the calling of god, and every man's occupation is sacred in the sense of duty.Because of this, germans work seriously and responsibly, can calm down to do their job.
Second, skilled workers also earn high incomes
The average mechanic earns 2,000 to 3,000 euros (about 14,500 to 22,000 yuan), which is about as much as a college graduate's salary, and is easier to find a job.High skilled workers are the treasure of the enterprise. Their income is higher and they can not only support their families, but also buy a house and a car and enjoy a high quality of life.
Even if you are a breadwinner, you can also take a vacation abroad or focus on your hobbies, such as collecting fine wines or antique paintings. These are not exclusive to the highly educated.Graduates from vocational schools are also talented and have the opportunity to be sent abroad to work with high salaries and overseas subsidies.A friend of mine worked at hinker global freight after graduating from technical school. After several years of work, she was sent to Beijing and Shanghai as a technical director respectively. She not only saved a lot of money, but also invited her parents to visit China every year.
Third, Germany's education channel to anyone, at all times are very open
Skilled workers who want to "switch tracks" can also apply for admission to the university of applied technology, where they can graduate with a state-recognised master's degree.Of course, students can also apply for master's and doctoral degrees in comprehensive universities after obtaining the Abitur (complete high school diploma) through tutoring.There is no age limit on schooling in Germany, which is a typical example of lifelong learning.So it's no surprise to see a gray-haired old lady in a college class.
Because germans have the concept of universal equality, skilled workers also enjoy a higher income, at any time can enter higher education, so many germans would rather choose to become skilled workers, rather than to compete for a university degree.Because of this, Germany has not only a lot of "stargazing" thinkers, but also a lot of "down-to-earth" doers.
2. Why are germans successful when they work short hours
Short hours?No way, but here it is. This is a ranking of 36 countries surveyed by the organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD).
My god, average down German working day work six hours a day, what concept, compared to me big day day in endless helpless pain overtime, simply not too happy.
This year, the figure was updated.
According to the financial times reported, after six negotiations, Germany's largest industrial unions German unions and southwest metals metal electrical employers association agreement, the parties agree that: give the workers a raise 4.3% in April, allowing the workers working time from a standard 35 hours a week down to 28 hours, namely working 5.6 hours a day, at the same time reserves the right to return to full-time work.
Let's figure out how long German workers work
In Germany, in addition to the 104 days weekend vacation brought by the five-day work week, according to the German "federal vacation law", each person is entitled to at least 24 working days paid vacation per year (generally more than 30 days), excluding weekends and holidays.In addition to statutory holidays, such as New Year, May Day, German unification day and Christmas, Easter, ascension day, the festival of mourning, the total number of holidays exceeded 150 days.
Germans work about 1,204 hours a year, based on a 5.6-hour work day and the minimum amount of vacation time.
In addition, there is no China in the table above, but it is estimated that Chinese workers work between 2,000 and 2,200 hours a year, even if they work nine-to-five, double time and no overtime.In between, China works about 2,100 hours a year.
Moreover, for many Chinese enterprises, it is rare that they do not work overtime, and many Chinese companies do not get overtime pay.Overall, it should be no surprise that China ranks first in the world in working hours per capita...
Here's a quick survey: how long do you work each week?
Here is a vote, temporarily do not support collection
Note: working hours in one year = working hours per week *52 weeks
If you look at the GDP data of various countries in 2016 released by the world bank, China has a population of 1.4 billion with a per capita income of $7,900, while Germany has a population of 80 million with a per capita income of $42,000, which is five times more than China and only second to the United States.
Germany is surprisingly the best country in 2016, with China at number 17.
3. Why does Germany have the lowest working hours
The economy is doing so well
With such a high welfare system, Germany can still create such an economic miracle, and more than 2,300 world brands, why?
One, do not blindly pursue high speed
Although German motorways never have speed limits, there are plenty of bumper stickers reminding you to slow down.A product needs 8 hours to finish, the German must work 8 hours to produce the product, the Chinese is an hour to complete the same work, but the quality is very different.However, this kind of behavior without the pursuit of speed, in Chinese people's eyes is "slow work".
German architects, the design drawings are carefully conceived, there is no repetition, so the architecture presents a different style.Because the same drawing plagiarism will be peer looked down upon, in the industry is difficult to mix.But similar buildings abound in China.
Second, do not rely on real estate
Compared with Britain and France, Germany, a backward capitalist country, has never regarded real estate as the pillar industry of the national economy for 100 years, and almost perversely restricted the real estate industry and the housing rental industry.Germany regards real estate as a service industry with welfare nature rather than a pillar industry of national economy.Machinery manufacturing, automobile, electronic equipment and chemical manufacturing are the four pillars of the German economy.
The German criminal law stipulates that buying a third house is regarded as speculation and a crime, which is why Chinese people dare not speculate in Germany.The German government has enacted laws and policies that guarantee people's housing rights in a "practical and effective way". Even though China has rich financial resources, it cannot make profits from property speculation in Germany, because it is likely to pay high taxes and violate the criminal law.
Third, do not rely on tourism
Germany has more tourism resources, even more abundant than France, but the development of tourism is far lower than that of European countries, which is why germans attach importance to the development of industry, do not like cultural boasting, pragmatic spirit.
Germany has the largest number of ancient castles in Europe. Even the traditional industrial zone of Norwich also has a large number of water castles. Bavaria, where Munich is located, has many gorgeous palaces, such as the palace of Munich, which is not inferior to the palace of Versailles in Paris.
No financial bubbles
After the war, Germany experienced six economic recessions, including two oil crises and the us subprime crisis. However, each recession lasted less than one year, especially in the European debt crisis, Germany was the first to recover and showed strong resilience against the crisis.By contrast, the us experienced seven post-war recessions and recovered long after the oil and subprime crises of the 1970s.
All this is due to the fact that Germany did not play a financial bubble. Germany's finance serves the real economy and is in an underdeveloped position in the developed western economies.
Personally, there are three reasons:
1. Germans have flexible working hours and a high degree of autonomy.
2. German people are very efficient and concentrate on their work when they are at work. When you chat with your colleagues in the office and drink coffee, they are also concentrating on their work.
3. In contrast to the former, germans attach great importance to their personal lives. Once they leave the company, they don't let work eat into their leisure time.
But also very important, the germans to work very dutiful, they are also very seriously, but also for life to distinguish is open, it also has the very big difference with our country's culture, work overtime in the eyes of the germans is not how much you hard, earnest, the opposite is you work efficiency is low, so the germans hate to work overtime.